Threonine (Essential amino acid).
Threonine is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It is essential in humans, meaning the body cannot synthesize it and thus must be obtained from the diet. Threonine is one of two proteinogenic amino acids with two chiral centers, the other being isoleucine.
Important for nervous system, fat metabolism, and immune system.
Threonine is an important residue of many proteins, such as tooth enamel, collagen, and elastin. An important amino acid for the nervous system, threonine also plays an important role in porphyrin and fat metabolism and prevents fat build up in the liver. Useful with intestinal disorders and indigestion, threonine has also been used to alleviate anxiety and mild depression.
Threonine is an immunostimulant which promotes the growth of thymus gland. It also can probably promote cell immune defense function. This amino acid has been useful in the treatment of genetic spasticity disorders and multiple sclerosis at a dose of 1 gram daily.
Threonine is also a precursor of glycine, and can be used as a prodrug to reliably elevate brain glycine levels.
Cottage cheese is a good source of threonine.
Foods high in threonine include cottage cheese, poultry, fish, meat, lentils, Black turtle bean and Sesame seeds.
The most common signs of an L-threonine deficiency include a fatty liver, digestion difficulties and emotional agitation.
The most significant indication that you may need L-threonine supplements is if your diet is deficient in L-threonine. This is most likely to occur if you are a strict vegetarian, as the best sources of L-threonine are animal proteins. The best vegetable sources include grains and leafy vegetables, although they have much less L-threonine than meat. The most common signs of an L-threonine deficiency include a fatty liver, digestion difficulties and emotional agitation.
Increasing the threonine plasma concentrations leads to accumulation of threonine and glycine in the brain.
Due to this high threonine content the plasma threonine concentrations are up to twice as high in premature infants fed these formulas than in infants fed human milk.
Increasing the threonine plasma concentrations leads to accumulation of threonine and glycine in the brain. Such accumulation affects the neurotransmitter balance which may have consequences for the brain development during early postnatal life. Thus, excessive threonine intake during infant feeding should be avoided.
The usual dose of threonine is between 500 and 1000mg per day. It is safe however to take doses up to 6g per day. Higher doses than this can be toxic.