Footwear Components | Footwear Types

Comments · 532 Views

Footwear are garments worn on the feet, which originally serves the purpose of protection against adversities of the environment, usually regarding ground textures and temperature. To ensure high quality and safety of footwear, manufacturers have to make sure all products comply with existing and relevant standards.

FOOTWEAR

 

Footwear are garments worn on the feet, which originally serves to purpose of protection against adversities of the environment, usually regarding ground textures and temperature. Footwear in the manner of shoes therefore primarily serves the purpose to ease the locomotion and prevent injuries. Secondly footwear can also be used for fashion and adornment. Socks and other hosiery are typically worn additionally between the feet and other footwear for further comfort and relief.

 

Components

Adhesives

An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any non-metallic substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation. Adjectives may be used in conjunction with the word "adhesive" to describe properties based on the substance's physical or chemical form, the type of materials joined, or conditions under which it is applied.


Buckle

The buckle or clasp is a device used for fastening two loose ends, with one end attached to it and the other held by a catch in a secure but adjustable manner. Often taken for granted, the invention of the buckle has been indispensable in securing two ends before the invention of the zipper. The basic buckle frame comes in a variety of shapes and sizes depending on the intended use and fashion of the era. Buckles are as much in use today as they have been in the past. Used for much more than just securing one’s belt, instead it is one of the most dependable devices in securing a range of items.


Eyelet

A grommet is a ring or edge strip inserted into a hole through thin material, typically a sheet of textile fabric, sheet metal or composite of carbon fiber, wood or honeycomb. Grommets are generally flared or collared on each side to keep them in place, and are often made of metal, plastic, or rubber. They may be used to prevent tearing or abrasion of the pierced material or protection from abrasion of the insulation on the wire, cable, line being routed through the penetration, and to cover sharp edges of the piercing, or all of the above.


A small grommet may also be called an eyelet, used for example on shoes, tarps and sails for lacing purposes.


Heel

The heel is the bottom rear part of a shoe. Its function is to support the heel of the foot. They are often made of the same material as the sole of the shoe. This part can be high for fashion or to make the person look taller, or flat for a more practical and comfortable use. On some shoes the inner forward point of the heel is chiseled off, a feature known as a "gentleman's corner". This piece of design is intended to alleviate the problem of the points catching the bottom of trousers and was first observed in the 1930s. A heel is the projection at the back of a shoe which rests below the heel bone. The shoe heel is used to improve the balance of the shoe, increase the height of the wearer, and alter posture or other decorative purposes. Sometimes raised, the high heel is common to a form of shoe often worn by women, but sometimes by men too. See also stiletto heel.


Hook

A hook-and-eye closure is a very simple and secure method of fastening garments together. It consists of a metal hook, commonly made of flattened wire bent to the required shape, and an eye (or "eyelet") of the same material into which the hook fits.


Laces

Shoelaces, also called shoestrings (US English) or bootlaces (UK English), are a system commonly used to secure shoes, boots and other footwear. They typically consist of a pair of strings or cords, one for each shoe, finished off at both ends with stiff sections, known as aglets. Each shoelace typically passes through a series of holes, eyelets, loops or hooks on either side of the shoe. Loosening the lacing allows the shoe to open wide enough for the foot to be inserted or removed. Tightening the lacing and tying off the ends secures the foot within the shoe.


Shank

In a boot or shoe, the shank is a part of the supportive structure between the insole and outsole. The presence of a shank is crucial to the functionality of mountaineering boots as they diminish the load incurred by the wearer’s feet and calves over the course of an ascent. Traditionally constructed of steel, contemporary shanks are more commonly made up of less heat conductive but equally rigid options such as fiberglass and Kevlar. The rigid nature of these materials contributes a protective element to the footwear into which they are integrated, helping shield the wearer’s feet from puncture wounds and stone bruises.


Sole

All shoes have a sole, which is the bottom of a shoe, in contact with the ground. Soles can be made from a variety of materials, although most modern shoes have soles made from natural rubber, polyurethane, or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) compounds. Soles can be simple — a single material in a single layer — or they can be complex, with multiple structures or layers and materials. When various layers are used, soles may consist of an insole, midsole, and an outsole.


The insole is the interior bottom of a shoe, which sits directly beneath the foot under the foot bed (also known as sock liner). The purpose of insole is to attach to the lasting margin of the upper, which is wrapped around the last during the closing of the shoe during the lasting operation. Insoles are usually made of cellulosic paper board or synthetic non-woven insole board. Many shoes have removable and replaceable foot beds. Extra cushioning is often added for comfort (to control the shape, moisture, or smell of the shoe) or health reasons (to help deal with differences in the natural shape of the foot or positioning of the foot during standing or walking).


The outsole is the layer in direct contact with the ground. Dress shoes often have leather or resin rubber outsoles; casual or work-oriented shoes have outsoles made of natural rubber or a synthetic material like polyurethane. The outsole may comprise a single piece, or may be an assembly of separate pieces, often of different materials. On some shoes, the heel of the sole has a rubber plate for durability and traction, while the front is leather for style. Specialized shoes will often have modifications on this design: athletic or so called cleated shoes like soccer, rugby, baseball and golf shoes have spikes embedded in the outsole to improve traction.


The midsole' is the layer in between the outsole and the insole, typically there for shock absorption. Some types of shoes, like running shoes, have additional material for shock absorption, usually beneath the heel of the foot, where one puts the most pressure down. Some shoes may not have a midsole at all.


Tack

A shoe tack is a clinching nail for clinching leather and sometimes wood, formerly used for handmade shoes.


Tread

The word tread is often used casually to refer to the pattern of grooves molded into the rubber, but those grooves are correctly called the tread pattern, or simply the pattern.


Welt

A Goodyear welt is a strip of leather, rubber, or plastic that runs along the perimeter of a shoe outsole. The machinery used for the process was invented in 1869 by Charles Goodyear Jr., the son of Charles Goodyear.

 

Types

Boots

A boot is a type of footwear and a specific type of shoe. Most boots mainly cover the foot and the ankle, while some also cover some part of the lower calf. Some boots extend up the leg, sometimes as far as the knee or even the hip. Most boots have a heel that is clearly distinguishable from the rest of the sole, even if the two are made of one piece. Traditionally made of leather or rubber, modern boots are made from a variety of materials. Boots are worn both for their functionality – protecting the foot and leg from water, extreme cold, mud or hazards (e.g., work boots may protect wearers from chemicals or use a steel toe) or providing additional ankle support for strenuous activities with added traction requirements (e.g., hiking), or may have hobnails on their undersides to protect against wear and to get better grip; and for reasons of style and fashion.


    • Chukka boots

      Chukka boots are ankle-high leather boots with suede or leather uppers, leather or rubber soles, and open lacing with two or three pairs of eyelets. The name chukka possibly comes from the game of polo, where a chukka is a period of play.


    • Combat boots

      Combat boots are military boots designed to be worn by soldiers during combat or combat training, as opposed to during parades and other ceremonial duties. Modern combat boots are designed to provide a combination of grip, ankle stability, and foot protection suitable for a rugged environment. They are traditionally made of hardened and sometimes waterproofed leather. Today, many combat boots incorporate technologies originating in civilian hiking boots, such as Gore-Tex nylon side panels, which improve ventilation and comfort. They are also often specialized for certain climates and conditions, such as jungle boots, desert boots, and cold weather boots as well as specific uses, such as tanker boots and jump boots.


    • Cowboy boots

      Cowboy boots refer to a specific style of riding boot, historically worn by cowboys. They have a Cuban heel, rounded to pointed toe, high shaft, and, traditionally, no lacing. Cowboy boots are normally made from cowhide leather but are also sometimes made from "exotic" skins such as alligator, snake, ostrich, lizard, eel, elephant, stingray, elk, buffalo, and the like.


    • Fashion boots

      A fashion boot is a boot worn for reasons of style or fashion (rather than for utilitarian purposes – e.g. not hiking boots, riding boots, rain boots, etc.). The term is usually applied to women's boots. Fashion boots come in a wide variety of styles, from ankle to thigh-length, and are used for casual, formal, and business attire. Although boots were a popular style of women's footwear in the Nineteenth Century, they were not recognized as a high fashion item until the 1960s. They became widely popular in the 1970s and have remained a staple of women's winter wardrobes since then.


    • Go-go boots

      Go-go boots are a low-heeled style of women's fashion boot first introduced in the mid-1960s. The original go-go boots, as defined by André Courrèges in 1964, were white, low-heeled, and mid-calf in height, a specific style which is sometimes called the Courrèges boot. Since then, the term go-go boot has come to include the knee-high, square-toed boots with block heels that were very popular in the 1960s and 1970s; as well as a number of variations including kitten heeled versions and colors other than white.


    • Hiking boots

      Hiking (walking) boots are footwear specifically designed for protecting the feet and ankles during outdoor walking activities such as hiking. They are one of the most important items of hiking gear, since their quality and durability can determine a hiker's ability to walk long distances without injury. Hiking boots are constructed to provide comfort for walking considerable distance over rough terrain. Boots that protect the hiker's feet and heel are recommended. Hiking boots give ankle support and are fairly stiff. A less popular alternative is to use light trainers with thin soles.[citation needed] Footwear should be neither too loose nor too tight, to help prevent blisters and sore feet. Hiking socks that wick sweat from the feet, provide warmth, and cushion the feet are recommended and a thin, inner sock may also help. Most hiking boots are also designed for other outdoor activities such as backpacking, climbing, mountaineering, and hunting.


    • Motorcycle boots

      Motorcycle boots are associated with motorcycle riders and range from above ankle to below knee boots. They have an outside of a typical boot but a low heel to control the motorcycle. To improve motorcycle safety, motorcycle boots are generally made from a thick, heavy leather and may include energy absorbing and load spreading padding, metal, plastic and/or composite materials to protect the motorcycle rider's feet, ankles and legs in an accident. For use in wet weather, some boots have a waterproof membrane lining such as Gore-Tex or SympaTex.


      Depending upon how form-fitting the boot is, to allow a rider to easily get the boot on or off, the shaft may be designed to open lengthwise. If so, Velcro or other hook-and-loop fasteners are typically used on the inner sides of the opening to allow the rider to close the boot over the foot, ankle and leg. This allows for some flexibility for the rider to control the boot's tightness. Some manufacturers also include an internal quick-lacing system between a soft inner leg and the harder outer shell of the boot shaft to further ensure a tight, but comfortable fit. The heel of a racing boot is typically very low: not more than 1/2-inch (13 mm), and sole of the heel and foot is typically rather smooth. A curved plastic or composite plate may be included to cover the shin of the boot to protect the rider's shin.

    • Mukluk

      Mukluks or Kamik are a soft boot, traditionally made of reindeer (caribou) skin or sealskin, and worn by Arctic aboriginal people, including the Inuit, Iñupiat, and Yupik.


      Mukluks may be worn over an inner boot liner and under a protective overshoe. The term mukluk is often used for any soft boot designed for cold weather, and modern designs may use both traditional and modern materials. The word "mukluk" is of Iñupiat and Yupik origin, from maklak, the bearded seal, while "kamik" is an Inuit word. In the Inuipiaq language the "u" makes an "oo" sound, and so the spelling "maklak" is used with the same pronunciation.


    • Platform boots

      Platform shoes are shoes, boots, or sandals with an obvious thick sole, usually in the range of 3–10 cm (1–4 in). Platform shoes may also be high heels, in which case the heel is raised significantly higher than the ball of the foot. Extreme heights, of both the sole and heel, can be found in fetish footwear such as ballet boots, where the sole may be up to 20 cm (8 in) high, and the heels up to 40 cm (16 in) and more. The sole of a platform shoe can have a continuous uniform thickness, have a wedge, a separate block or a stiletto heel. Raising the ankle increases the risk of a sprained ankle.


    • Riding boots

      A riding boot is a boot made to be used for horse riding. The classic boot comes high enough up the leg to prevent the leathers of the saddle from pinching the leg of the rider, has a sturdy toe to protect the rider's foot when on the ground and has a distinct heel to prevent the foot from sliding through the stirrup. The sole is smooth or lightly textured to avoid being caught on the tread of the stirrup in the event of a fall.


      The modern riding boot is relatively low-heeled, with a heel of less than one inch, though historically a higher heel was common, as it has always been critically important for riding boots to prevent the foot from slipping through the stirrup. Today, only some styles of cowboy boot retain a higher heel than other modern riding boots.


    • Russian boots

      Russian boot is the name applied to a style of calf- or knee-length fashion boot for women that was popular in the early part of the 20th century. Russian boots fell out of favor in the 1930s, but were the inspiration for the high-leg fashion boots that returned to popularity in the 1950s and 60s. Today the term Russian boot is sometimes applied to the style of low heeled boots worn by some folk dancers.


    • Thigh-length boots

      Thigh-high boots, known also as thigh-length boots or simply thigh boots, are boots that extend above the knees to at least mid-thigh. Other terms for this footwear include over-the-knee boots (abbreviated OTK boots; the full term is also used for the 15th century riding boots for men, later adopted by women) and, especially when cuffed, pirate boots. Lengths vary from reaching just over the knee to reaching almost to the crotch (referred to as crotch boots or crotch-high boots).


      Thigh boots are made of materials ranging from various leathers to various synthetic materials (including vinyl, polyurethane, or latex) to various fabrics (such as silk or polyester microfiber). Many are constructed with zippers, but some are designed as pull-on boots. Heel heights vary, but most styles are either flat or with heels greater than 3 inches (7.5 cm). Heel styles vary from metal spikes to chunky. Like other boots, they can also have platform soles.


      Thigh boots are considered by many to be erotic or kinky. They are used as fetish clothing in boot fetishism and shoe fetishism. Cheaper thigh boots are often worn by prostitutes and professional dominatrices, so many people consider them icons of such trades. Because of the latter, they are often associated with sadomasochism. Nevertheless, they are frequently sold by couture designers, perhaps because of the implied eroticism.


      Thigh-high boots are more flattering on women with longer legs: "The shorter you are, the less leg there is above the top of the boot, when wearing footwear that ends above the knee. A very high heel helps to give the illusion of height, but when there is much more boot visible than leg; the effect is to optically foreshorten you.


    • Ugg boots

      Ugg boots are a unisex style of sheepskin boot originating in Australia and New Zealand. The boots are typically made of twin-faced sheepskin with fleece on the inside, a tanned outer surface and a synthetic sole. The term, ugg boots, originated from Australia, initially for utilitarian footwear worn for warmth, and which were often worn by surfers during the 1960s. In the 1970s, the boots were introduced to the surf culture of the United Kingdom and the United States. Sheepskin boots became a fashion trend in the U.S. in the late 1990s and as a worldwide trend in the mid-2000s. In Australia, they are worn predominantly as slippers and often associated with "daggy" fashion sense and "bogan" culture.


    • Valenki

      Valenki are traditional Russian winter footwear, essentially felt boots: the name valenok literally means "made by felting". Valenki are made of wool felt. They are not water-resistant, and are often worn with galoshes to keep water out and protect the soles from wear and tear. Valenki were once the footwear of choice for many Russians, but in the second half of the 20th century they lost most of their appeal in cities, due to their association with rustic dress.


    • Veldskoen

      Veldskoen (or vellie, colloquial, veldskoene plural, alternately velskoens or velskoene plural; pronounced "FELL-skoons") are Southern African walking shoes made from vegetable-tanned leather or soft rawhide uppers attached to a leather footbed and rubber sole without tacks or nails.


      They are sometimes considered light boots, and can essentially be considered a subset of chukka boots or desert boots although vellies tend to have a lower topline. Veldskoen soles are sometimes cut from old car tires rather than crepe rubber. Veldskoen Shoes is celebrating these proudly iconic shoes with different colors, South African names and showcasing the unique and diverse culture that South Africa has to offer.


    • Waders

      Waders refers to a waterproof boot extending from the foot to the chest, traditionally made from vulcanized rubber, but available in more modern PVC, neoprene and Gore-Tex variants. Waders are generally distinguished from counterpart waterproof boots by shaft height; the hip boot extending to the thigh and the Wellington boot to the knee. They are therefore sometimes referred to as chest waders for emphasis. Waders are available with boots attached or can have attached stocking feet (usually made of the wader material), to wear inside boots.


    • Wellington boots

      The Wellington boot was originally a type of leather boot adapted from Hessian boots. They were worn and popularized by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. The "Wellington" boot became a staple of practical foot wear for the British aristocracy and middle class in the early 19th century. The name was subsequently given to waterproof boots made of rubber and they are no longer associated with a particular class. They are now commonly used for a range of agricultural and outdoors pursuits.


  • Winklepickers

    Winklepickers, or winkle pickers, are a style of shoe or boot worn from the 1950s onward by British rock and roll fans. The feature that gives both the boot and shoe their name is the very sharp and long pointed toe, reminiscent of medieval footwear and approximately the same as the long pointed toes on some women's high-fashion shoes and boots in the late 2000s.


Shoes

A shoe is an item of footwear intended to protect and comfort the human foot while the wearer is doing various activities. Shoes are also used as an item of decoration and fashion. The design of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture to culture, with appearance originally being tied to function. Additionally, fashion has often dictated many design elements, such as whether shoes have very high heels or flat ones. Contemporary footwear in the 2010s varies widely in style, complexity and cost. Basic sandals may consist of only a thin sole and simple strap and be sold for a low cost. High fashion shoes made by famous designers may be made of expensive materials, use complex construction and sell for hundreds or even thousands of dollars a pair. Some shoes are designed for specific purposes, such as boots designed specifically for mountaineering or skiing.


Traditionally, shoes have been made from leather, wood or canvas, but in the 2010s, they are increasingly made from rubber, plastics, and other petrochemical-derived materials. Though the human foot is adapted to varied terrain and climate conditions, it is still vulnerable to environmental hazards such as sharp rocks and temperature extremes, which shoes protect against. Some shoes are worn as safety equipment, such as steel-soled boots which are required on construction sites.


    • Athletic shoes (also known as trainers or sneakers)

      Sneakers (also known as athletic shoes, tennis shoes, gym shoes, sport shoes, runners, or trainers) are shoes primarily designed for sports or other forms of physical exercise, but which are now also widely used for everyday wear. The term generally describes a type of footwear with a flexible sole made of rubber or synthetic material and an upper part made of either leather or synthetic materials.


    • Ballet flats

      Ballet flats, Dolly shoes, or simply flats, are similar to/inspired by a woman's ballet shoe, with a very thin heel or the appearance of no heel at all. The style sometimes features a ribbon-like binding around the low tops of the slipper and may have a slight gathering at the top-front of the vamp (toe box) and sometimes a tiny, decorative string tie. Ballet slippers can be adjusted and tightened to the wearer's foot by means of this string tie.


    • Court shoes (known in the US as pumps)

      A court shoe (British English), or pump (American English), is a shoe with a low-cut front, or vamp, and without a fastening. They are usually worn by women, but are still traditional menswear in some formal situations, where the style is sometimes called an opera slipper or patent pump. Pumps with a strap across the instep are called Mary Janes. Pumps may have an ankle strap.


    • Espadrilles

      Espadrilles or espardenyes are casual, flat, but sometimes high-heeled shoes. They usually have a canvas or cotton fabric upper and a flexible sole made of esparto rope. The esparto rope sole is the defining characteristic of an espadrille; the uppers vary widely in style.


  • Galoshes

    Galoshes, also known as dickersons, gumshoes, rubbers, or overshoes, are a type of rubber boot that is slipped over shoes to keep them from getting muddy or wet. In the United States, the word galoshes may be used interchangeably with boot, especially a rubberized boot. In the United Kingdom, however, a galosh is an overshoe made of a weatherproof material to protect a more vulnerable shoe underneath and keep the foot warm and dry.


Kitten heels

A kitten heel is a short, slender heel, usually from 3.5 centimeters (1.5 inches) to 4.75 centimeters (1.75 inches) high, with a slight curve setting the heel in from the back edge of the shoe. The style was popularized by Audrey Hepburn, and more recently by Theresa May, Michelle Obama, and Hillary Clinton.


Shoes with kitten heels may be worn at work in an office setting by women who wish to wear feminine attire that is still practical. For parties, kitten heels are an alternative for women who find high heels uncomfortable. Further, kitten heels are also worn by teenage girls, who may be considered too young for high heels.


Lace-up shoes

    • Derby shoes

      A derby is a style of boot or shoe characterized by quarters with shoelace eyelets that are sewn on top of the vamp. This construction method, also known as "open lacing", contrasts with that of the oxford.


      In American English the derby shoe may be referred to as a blucher, although technically the blucher is a different design of shoe where only eyelet tabs (not larger quarters) are sewn onto a single piece vamp.


      In modern colloquial English, the derby shoe may be referred to as "bucks," when the upper is made of buckskin.


      The derby became a popular sporting and hunting boot in the 1850s. By the turn of the 20th century, the derby had become appropriate for wear in town.


    • Oxford shoes

      An Oxford shoe is characterized by shoelace eyelets tabs that are attached under the vamp, a feature termed "closed lacing". This contrasts with Derbys, or Blüchers, which have shoelace eyelets attached to the top of the vamp. Originally, Oxfords were plain, formal shoes, made of leather, but they evolved into a range of styles suitable for formal, uniform, or casual wear. Based on function and the dictates of fashion, Oxfords are now made from a variety of materials, including calf leather, faux and genuine patent leather, suede, and canvas. They are normally black or brown, and may be plain or patterned (Brogue).


    • Brogues

      The Brogue (derived from the Gaelic bróg (Irish), bròg (Scottish) "shoe") is a style of low-heeled shoe or boot traditionally characterized by multiple-piece, sturdy leather uppers with decorative perforations (or "broguing") and serration along the pieces' visible edges.


  • Blucher shoes

    A blucher is a style of shoe with open lacing, its vamp made of a single piece of leather ("one cut"), with shoelace eyelets tabs sewn on top.


    The blucher is similar to a derby: both feature open lacing, in contrast to the Oxford shoe, which uses close lacing, but in the derby the upper has large quarters with eyelets sewn on top, while in the blucher the upper is made of one cut, with only the small eyelet tabs sewn on top. In American English these terms are sometimes confused, with "blucher" also being used to refer to derby shoes, and "Oxford" also being used to refer to bluchers.


High-tops

The high-top is a shoe that extends significantly over the wearer's ankle. It is commonly an athletic shoe, particularly for basketball. It is sometimes confused with the slightly shorter mid-top, which typically extends no higher than the wearer's ankle. High-tops also should not be confused with shorter-length boots such as ankle boots, since high-tops usually refer to athletic shoes, although can also refer to other above-ankle shoes such as some hiking boots.


Examples of basketball shoes that are high-tops are Converse All-Stars, Nike Air Forces 1, 2, and 3, Reebok Freestyle, Reebok BB4600, Nike Air Yeezy and Foggia Hi LTD from Fila. Others include skateboarding sneakers, such as the Vans Vault Hi Fi LX which are quite supportive to the wearer's ankles and are useful to those with hypermobility and fallen arches.


Loafers

Slip-ons are typically low, lace-less shoes. The style most commonly seen, known as a loafer or slippers in American culture, has a moccasin construction. One of the first designs was introduced in London by Wildsmith Shoes, called the Wildsmith Loafer. They began as casual shoes, but have increased in popularity to the point of being worn in America with city lounge suits. Another design was introduced as Aurlandskoen (the Aurland Shoe) in Norway (early 20th century). They are worn in many situations in a variety of colours and designs, often featuring tassels on the front, or metal decorations (the 'Gucci' loafer).


A less casual, earlier type of slip-on is made with side gussets (sometimes called a dress loafer). Made in the same shape as lace-up Oxfords, but lacking the laces, these shoes have elasticated inserts on the side which allow the shoe to be easily removed but remain snug when worn. This cut has its greatest popularity in Britain.


Mary Janes

Mary Jane (also known as bar shoes or "doll shoes") is an American term (formerly a registered trademark) for a closed, low-cut shoe with one or more straps across the instep.


Classic Mary Janes for children are typically made of black leather or patent leather, have one thin strap fastened with a buckle or button, a broad and rounded toebox, low heels, and thin outsoles. Among girls, Mary Janes are traditionally worn with pantyhose or socks, and a dress or a skirt and blouse. Among boys (less common), Mary Janes are traditionally worn with socks, short trousers, and a shirt.


Moccasins

A moccasin is a shoe, made of deerskin or other soft leather, consisting of a sole (made with leather that has not been "worked") and sides made of one piece of leather, stitched together at the top, and sometimes with a vamp (additional panel of leather). The sole is soft and flexible and the upper part often is adorned with embroidery or beading. Though sometimes worn inside, it is chiefly intended for outdoor use. Historically, it is the footwear of many indigenous people of North America; moreover, hunters, traders, and European settlers wore them. Etymologically, the moccasin derives from the Algonquian language Powhatan word makasin (cognate to Massachusett mohkisson / mokussin, Ojibwa makizin, Mi'kmaq mksɨn), and from the Proto-Algonquian word *maxkeseni (shoe).


Mules

Mule is a style of shoe that has no back or constraint around the foot's heel. Mules have a history going as back as Ancient Rome, even though they were not popularly worn until sixteenth century Europe. There, mules were bedroom slippers and not worn out in public. Throughout the centuries mules have changed in style and purpose. They are no longer just boudoir shoes and are now worn any day and any occasion. In addition to Western examples, mules come from additional cultures like Turkey and Egypt. Across cultures and time frames, mules appear in popular culture from famous paintings to iconic celebrity shoes.


Platform shoes

Platform shoes are shoes, boots, or sandals with an obvious thick sole, usually in the range of 3–10 cm (1–4 in). Platform shoes may also be high heels, in which case the heel is raised significantly higher than the ball of the foot. Extreme heights, of both the sole and heel, can be found in fetish footwear such as ballet boots, where the sole may be up to 20 cm (8 in) high, and the heels up to 40 cm (16 in) and more. The sole of a platform shoe can have a continuous uniform thickness, have a wedge, a separate block or a stiletto heel. Raising the ankle increases the risk of a sprained ankle.


Skate shoes

Skate shoes or skateboard shoes are a type of footwear specifically designed and manufactured for use in skateboarding. While numerous non-skaters choose to wear skate shoes, the design of the skate shoe includes many features designed especially for use in skateboarding, including a vulcanized rubber or polyurethane sole with minimal tread pattern or no pattern, a composition leather or suede upper, and double or triple stitching to extend the life of the upper material. A low, padded tongue is often included for comfort.


Sneakers

Sneakers (also known as athletic shoes, tennis shoes, gym shoes, sport shoes, runners, or trainers) are shoes primarily designed for sports or other forms of physical exercise, but which are now also widely used for everyday wear. The term generally describes a type of footwear with a flexible sole made of rubber or synthetic material and an upper part made of either leather or synthetic materials.


Toe shoes

Vibram FiveFingers are a type of minimalist shoe manufactured by Vibram, originally marketed as a more natural alternative for different outdoors activities (sailing, kayaking, canoeing, and as a camp or after-hike shoe). The footwear is meant to replicate being barefoot and has thin, flexible soles that are contoured to the shape of the human foot, including visible individual sections for the toes. The company settled a lawsuit alleging false health claims and set aside $3.75 million to pay refunds of up to $94 to anyone who had purchased the product since March 21, 2009.


Sandals

Sandals are an open type of footwear, consisting of a sole held to the wearer's foot by straps going over the instep and, sometimes, around the ankle. Sandals can also have a heel. While the distinction between sandals and other types of footwear can sometimes be blurry (as in the case of huaraches—the woven leather footwear seen in Mexico, and peep-toe pumps), the common understanding is that a sandal leaves all or most of the foot exposed. People may choose to wear sandals for several reasons, among them comfort in warm weather, economy (sandals tend to require less material than shoes and are usually easier to construct), and as a fashion choice.


    • Kolhapuri Chappals

      Kolhapuri chappals are Indian hand-crafted leather that is used to reshape their kids for a better tomorrow. Slippers that are locally tanned using vegetable dyes. Kolhapuri Chappals or Kolhapuris as they are commonly referred to are a style of open-toed, T-strap sandal which originated from Kolhapur, a southern district in the state of Maharashtra. These are used during festivals as well as day to day purpose.


    • Peshawari chappal

      Peshawari chappal is a traditional footwear of Pakistan, worn especially by Pashtuns in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region. The shoe takes its name from the city of Peshawar, where it originates from, while "chappal" is the local word for flip-flops. Peshawari chappal is worn by men casually or formally, usually with the Shalwar kameez dress. Because of its comfort, it is used in place of sandal or slipper in Pakistan.


      It is a semi-closed footwear which consists of two wide strips where both strips are joined with the sole by crossing each other. The back side has also a strip with a buckle to tie according to the foot size and level of comfort. It is traditionally made with pure leather with its sole often made of truck tire. It is available in many traditional designs and colors with various variations such as works of golden and silver threads, which give the shoe a more elegant look. Peshawari chappals have become increasingly popular in other parts of Pakistan; even wearing them with jeans has become a fashion trend, especially among urban youth. With the increase access of Peshawari Chappals through ecommerce websites it's now revitalizing with new designs in many cities of Pakistan and Dubai.


    • Flip-flops (thongs)

      Flip-flops are a type of sandal, typically worn as a form of casual wear. They consist of a flat sole held loosely on the foot by a Y-shaped strap known as a toe thong that passes between the first and second toes and around both sides of the foot.


    • Slide

      A slide is a form of footwear different from shoes and similar to flip-flops. They are backless and open-toed, essentially an open-toed mule. Generally, all slides are sandals. Thongs and flip flops are normally classified separately.[1][2] Slides can be high-heeled, flat-heeled or somewhere in between, and may cover nearly the entire foot from ankle to toe, or may have only one or two narrow straps. They usually include a single strap or a sequence of straps across the toes and the lower half of the foot to hold the shoe on the foot. The term is descriptive in that this shoe is easy to 'slide' on and off the foot when the wearer wants to do so. Slides are currently trending because of the desire for a more comfortable shoe that still allows participation in activities and sports.


    • Wörishofer

      Wörishofer is a type of orthopedic ladies' sandal made in Bad Wörishofen. They have a cork wedge in the sole which is light and acts as a shock absorber. They were first designed in the 1940s and have been considered practical but ugly. But in 2010, they became fashionable, being worn by celebrities such as Kirsten Dunst and Maggie Gyllenhaal. Their effectiveness as a fashion accessory is due to the confidence with which they are worn — the wearer is indicating that they are so beautiful that they can transcend the frumpiness of the shoe. In this, they are similar to other practical shoes which have been fashionable, including Birkenstocks, crocs, Dr. Martens, Dr. Scholl's and Ugg boots.


  • Avarca, from Balearic Islands

    The avarca is a type of sandal popular in the Balearic Islands (Spain), especially Menorca. The shoes are made using a leather upper and a rubber sole. Avarca is a traditional sandal originally developed in Menorca[2] in the Balearic Islands. They were originally made from a leather upper and with the sole made from a recycled car tire. Nowadays however the soles are made in the style of a car tire but from a purpose made mould. These are hard wearing and much lighter in weight than the original car tire sole. Only original avarca manufacturers are granted with the label "Avarca de Menorca ". This label is granted by local Government and guarantees that avarcas accomplishes minimum quality standards and avarcas are really manufactured in Menorca Island.


Indoor footwear

    • Slippers

      Slippers are light footwear that are easy to put on and off and are intended to be worn indoors, particularly at home.


  • Socks

    A sock is an item of clothing worn on the feet and often covering the ankle or some part of the calf. Some type of shoe or boot is typically worn over socks. In ancient times, socks were made from leather or matted animal hair. In the late 16th century, machine-knit socks were first produced. Until 1800 both hand knitting and machine knitting were used to produce socks, but after 1800, machine knitting became the predominant method.


    One of the roles of socks is absorbing perspiration. The foot is among the heaviest producers of sweat in the body, as it can produce over 0.25 US pints (0.12 l) of perspiration per day; socks help to absorb this sweat and draw it to areas where air can evaporate the perspiration. In cold environments, socks made from wool insulate the foot and decrease the risk of frostbite. Socks are worn with sport shoes (typically white-colored socks) and dress shoes (typically dark-colored socks). In addition to the numerous practical roles played by socks, they are also a fashion item, and they are available in myriad colors and patterns.


Specific footwear

    • Ballet shoes

      A ballet shoe, or ballet slipper, is a lightweight shoe designed specifically for ballet dancing. It may be made from soft leather, canvas, or satin, and has flexible, thin soles. Traditionally, women wear pink shoes and men wear white or black shoes. Tan colored slippers—which are unobtrusive and thus give the appearance of dancing barefoot—are worn in modern ballets and sometimes modern dancing by both men and women.


    • High-heeled footwear

      High heels are a type of shoe in which the heel, compared to the toe, is significantly higher off of the ground. These shoes go beyond simply protecting the foot from the ground or improve efficiency of walking. High heels make the wearer taller, accentuating the calf muscle and the length of the leg overall. There are many types of high heels, which come in different styles, colors, and materials, and can be found all over the world. They have significant cultural and fashionable meanings attached to them, which have been largely shaped by historical contexts over the past 1000 years.


    • Climbing shoes

      A climbing shoe is a specialized type of footwear designed for rock climbing. Typical climbing shoes have a close fit, little if any padding, and a smooth, sticky rubber sole with an extended rubber rand. Unsuited to walking and hiking, climbing shoes are typically donned at the base of a climb.


    • Clogs

      Clogs are a type of footwear made in part or completely from wood. Clogs are used worldwide and although the form may vary by culture, within a culture the form often remained unchanged for centuries.


    • Football boots

      Football boots, called cleats or soccer shoes in North America, are an item of footwear worn when playing football. Those designed for grass pitches have studs on the outsole to aid grip. From simple and humble beginnings football boots have come a long way and today find themselves subject to much research, development, sponsorship and marketing at the heart of a multi-national global industry. Modern "boots" are not truly boots in that they do not cover the ankle - like most other types of specialist sports footwear, their basic design and appearance has converged with that of sneakers since the 1960s.


    • Sabaton

      A sabaton or solleret is part of a knight's armor that covers the foot.


    • Ski boots

      Ski boots are footwear used in skiing to provide a way to attach the skier to skis using ski bindings. The ski/boot/binding combination is used to effectively transmit control inputs from the skier's legs to the snow.


    • Snowshoes

      A snowshoe is footwear for walking over snow. Snowshoes work by distributing the weight of the person over a larger area so that the person's foot does not sink completely into the snow, a quality called "flotation". Snowshoeing is a form of hiking.


    • Pointe shoes

      A pointe shoe is a type of shoe worn by ballet dancers when performing pointe work. Pointe shoes were conceived in response to the desire for dancers to appear weightless and sylph-like and have evolved to enable dancers to dance en pointe (on the tips of their toes) for extended periods of time. They are manufactured in a variety of colors, most commonly in shades of light pink.


  • Swimfins (flippers)

    Swimfins, swim fins, fins or flippers are finlike accessories worn on the feet, legs or hands and made from rubber, plastic or combinations of these materials, to aid movement through the water in water sports activities such as swimming, bodyboarding, bodysurfing, knee-boarding, river-boarding, underwater hockey, underwater rugby and various other types of underwater diving.


Traditional footwear

    • Abarka, of leather, from Pyrenees

      The abarka (Basque), abarca or albarca (Spanish) is the traditional footwear in Pyrenees.


      This sandal made in one piece of calf leather is tied by braided wool laces around the socks.


      Note however that in Cantabria, abarca is used for a wooden shoe.


      They were supplanted by espadrilles and rubber sandals for agricultural activities, but remain used for dance.

    • Areni-1 shoe, 5,500-year-old leather shoe found in Armenia

      The Areni-1 shoe is a 5,500-year-old leather shoe that was found in 2008 in excellent condition in the Areni-1 cave located in the Vayots Dzor province of Armenia. It is a one-piece leather-hide shoe, the oldest piece of leather footwear in the world known to contemporary researchers. The discovery was made by an international team led by Boris Gasparyan, an archaeologist from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (co-directors of the project are Ron Pinhasi from University College Cork in Ireland, and Gregory Areshian from UCLA).


    • Bast shoe, of bast, from Northern Europe

      Bast shoes are shoes made primarily from bast — fiber taken from the bark of trees such as linden or birch. They are a kind of basket, woven and fitted to the shape of a foot. Bast shoes are an obsolete traditional footwear of the forest areas of Northern Europe, formerly worn by poorer members of the Finnic peoples, Balts, Russians and Belarussians. They were easy to manufacture, but not durable.


    • Crakow, shoes from Poland with long toes popular in the 15th century

      Crakows or crackowes were a style of shoes with extremely long toes very popular in the 15th century. They were so named because the style was thought to have originated in Kraków, then the capital of Poland. They are also sometimes known as poulaines or pikes, though the term poulaine, as in souliers a la poulaine, "shoes in the Polish fashion", referred to the long pointed beak of the shoe, not the shoe itself.


    • Galesh, of textile, from Iran

      A galesh (گالش) is a traditional footwear of Iran.


      Unlike most galoshes, the "galesh" are always handwoven and with specific fabrics.


      It is what people in Persia used to wear before the proliferation of the modern shoe, especially in the provinces of northern Iran.


      Galesh are still made today, but in the category of handicrafts and cultural produce.

    • Geta, of wood, from Japan

      Geta (下駄) are a form of traditional Japanese footwear that resemble clogs and flip-flops. They are a kind of sandal with an elevated wooden base held onto the foot with a fabric thong to keep the foot well above the ground. They are worn with traditional Japanese clothing such as kimono or yukata, but (in Japan) also with Western clothing during the summer months. Sometimes geta are worn in rain or snow to keep the feet dry, due to their extra height and impermeability compared to other footwear such as zōri. They make a similar noise to flip-flops slapping against the heel whilst walking. When worn on water or dirt, flip-flops may flip dirt or water up the back of the legs. This does not tend to happen with the heavier Japanese geta.


    • Klompen, of wood, from the Netherlands

      A klomp (plural klompen) are whole feet clogs from the Netherlands.


      Approximately 3 million pairs of klompen are made each year. They are sold throughout the Netherlands. A large part of the market is for tourist souvenirs. However, some Dutch people, particularly farmers, market gardeners, and gardeners still wear them for everyday use. Outside the tourist industry, klompen can be found in local tool shops and garden centers.


    • Opanci, of leather, from Balkans

      Opanak (in Serbian), opinca (in Romanian) or opinga (in Albanian) are traditional peasant shoes worn in Southeastern Europe (specifically Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia, and also Romania and Albania). The attributes of the Opanci (name in plural) are: a construction of leather, lack of laces, durable, and various ending on toes. In Serbia, the design of the horn-like ending on toes indicates the region of origin. The Opanci are considered a national symbol of Serbia, and the traditional peasant footwear for people in the Balkan region.


  • Pampooties, of hide, from Ireland

    Pampooties are raw-hide shoes, which were formerly made and worn on the Aran Islands of County Galway, Ireland.


Socks

A sock is an item of clothing worn on the feet and often covering the ankle or some part of the calf. Some type of shoe or boot is typically worn over socks. In ancient times, socks were made from leather or matted animal hair. In the late 16th century, machine-knit socks were first produced. Until 1800 both hand knitting and machine knitting were used to produce socks, but after 1800, machine knitting became the predominant method.


One of the roles of socks is absorbing perspiration. The foot is among the heaviest producers of sweat in the body, as it can produce over 0.25 US pints (0.12 l) of perspiration per day; socks help to absorb this sweat and draw it to areas where air can evaporate the perspiration. In cold environments, socks made from wool insulate the foot and decrease the risk of frostbite. Socks are worn with sport shoes (typically white-colored socks) and dress shoes (typically dark-colored socks). In addition to the numerous practical roles played by socks, they are also a fashion item, and they are available in myriad colors and patterns.


    • Anklets

      Anklets are a type of sock. This sort of sock is not long, typically reaching just below the ankle. Anklets are sometimes folded or cuffed over.


    • Bobby socks

      Bobby socks are a style of women's sock, white, ankle length or collected at the ankle, instead of at full extension up the leg. The term bobby soxer derives from this type of sock. They were initially popular in the United States in the 1940s through the 1950s, later making a comeback in the 1980s.


    • Diabetic socks

      People with Diabetes have a greater chance of developing neuropathy, especially in the extremities, so socks and footwear that reduce or eliminate pressures or hot spots is important. A diabetic sock is a non-restrictive, but close fitting sock which is designed to alleviate pressures on the foot or leg. Typically sufferers of diabetes are the most common users of this type of sock. Diabetes raises the blood sugar level, which can increase the risk of foot ulcers. Diabetic socks are made to be unrestrictive of circulation, but if inclusive of Medical Grade, FDA regulated gradient compression, may be include venous compression for enhanced circulation.


      Proper diabetic socks also help top manage moisture, a feature which can reduce the risk of infection. Another beneficial feature of diabetic socks is seamless toe-closures to avoid pressure, potential hot spots and blistering.


    • Dress socks

      Dress socks are an article of dress clothes specifically for men. Traditionally, sometimes come in checkered patterns, and come in colors like black, brown, blue, and gray, but recent fashion trends have seen different patterns and colors appear. Dress socks are worn in accompaniment to dress shoes and they are also used in formal wear when worn in accompaniment to a tuxedo. They can also be worn in accompany to casual wear like jeans.


      They also come in a variety of heights. They come ankle high, mid-calf high (the most common), and over the calf. Dress socks have also been known to slip down the leg, causing the wearer to have to constantly pull them up. In the past, men would buy garters or sock suspenders to help this, but with the introduction in the 1960s of better elastics such as spandex, it is mostly unnecessary now. Some men with larger calves may still need the extra assistance of garters to keep socks from slipping.


    • Footwraps

      Footwraps (also referred to as foot cloths, rags, bandages or bindings, or by their Russian name portyanki) are rectangular pieces of cloth that are worn wrapped around the feet to avoid chafing, absorb sweat and improve the foothold. Footwraps were worn with boots before socks became widely available, and remained in use by armies in Eastern Europe until the beginning of the 21st century.


    • Knee highs

      Knee highs are hosiery that cover the feet and legs up to the knee. A fashion accessory for a casual and classic cool or warm weather apparel. Typically worn by women in many societies, they are sometimes worn with modern semi-formal attire. Unlike ordinary socks, they are generally made of nylon or other stocking materials. There were also different types and uses of knee highs for men.


    • Toe socks

      Toe socks (also known as fingersocks, glove socks, 5-toe socks or digital socks) are socks that have been knitted so that each toe is individually encased the same way as fingers within a glove.


      All sock lengths are available as toe socks, from no-show style to anklet and ankle socks through to knee-high and over-knee socks. They are also available with rubberized undersides, as an alternative to bare feet for yoga. Toe socks are designed and available for both men and women, although traditionally targeted toward women.


  • Tabi

    Tabi (足袋) are traditional Japanese socks dating back to the 15th century. Ankle-high and with a separation between the big toe and other toes, they are worn by both men and women with zori, geta, and other traditional thonged footwear. Tabi are also essential with traditional clothing—kimono and other wafuku as well as being worn by samurai in the feudal era. The most common color is white, and white tabi are worn in formal situations such as at tea ceremonies. Men sometimes wear blue or black tabi for travelling. Patterned and colored tabi are also available and are worn most often by women, though they are gaining popularity among men as well.


    In contrast to socks that, when pulled on, fit the foot snugly because of their elastic weave, tabi are sewn from cloth cut to form. They are open at the back so they can be slipped on and have a row of fasteners along the opening so they can be closed.


That’s all we have to share in this article, please remember to leave a comment, share, and join the community. As a member, you can host your own blog posts on the platform, or just reach out, socialize, inspire and be inspired. As always, stay positive and keep looking up.





Read more
Comments